"Modernization of Russia demands embodiment of synthesis of social, patriotic and liberal values having carried out spontaneously by the Russia society in definite measures", -Michael Delyagin the Chairman of the Presidium - a scientific adviser in the Institute of Globalization Problems, Doctor of Economic Science, a Chairman of Editorial committee of FORUM.msk declared in his report on the scientifically-practical conference.
1. Exhaust of liberal project
Reforms in Russiaare being fulfilled on the base of liberal project connected with the name of Gajdar, Chubajs and Yasin. It had already settled the problems which were possible to settle to the middle of the 90th and exhaust itself. Its scantiness and at last uselessness for the future development of the country even from the formal point of view doesnt provoke doubts from the default of 1998 thus in the course of 6 years. By trying further realization of liberal project which has proved itself to be hopeless present leadership of Russiadooms to destruction not only whole country but also itself as its elite.
However no alternative project which can serve to the settlement of the problems being ignored or stressed by the liberal project thus being more significant hasnt been created.
The cause is the absence of the interested in force. If the liberal project had been working out mainly by the West as an instrument of realization of its own (including commercial) interests then modernization of Russia was a matter of interest to anyone till the latest time (including Russian state which strength had been going to habitual privatization of petrodollars).
The absence of alternative project makes all attempts to fasten state power useless because it creates the necessary prerequisites for managing of the barest necessities modernization at first in conditions when instruments and even notions about solving of these targets (frequently also about the targets) are absent due to the absence of adequate national project.
2. Content of liberal project
The main point of the liberal project in its present state is the submission of the country to the interests of the major connected with the state business and its reorganization in accordance with these interests.
As soon as the interests of the society as a whole do not coincide fully with the interests of business (even more so major) realization of this project with time begins to contradict with them. In particular the interests of the social layers and groups which do not connected with management and getting of profits from business are being infringed or ignored. As the exporters of raw staff are the most influential in Russia for whom remuneration of labour means not the way of creating of market but merely expenses, infringement of interests of employees (means of the major part of the society) acquires hypertrophied character.
The fact that bigness has qualitatively bigger resources than small and medium ones in the conditions of principal denying by the followers of liberal project of active creative role of the state in view of natural logics of competition turns this project against the small and medium business. That leads successive followers of the project to the denial of liberal values as they are (which can be guaranteed only by the state being a mouthpiece of joint will and interest of the society) for the sake of egoistic interests of bigness.
Because of the analogous reasons as long as transnational capital is stronger in general than national successive followers of liberal project come to the successive denial of national interests.
In this way starting being national directed on the supply of freedom and increase of the life level at the expense of undoing of mass private initiative liberal project degenerates at the big business project with predominance of foreign capital - more egoistic, openly hostile for the society, small and medium business.
It destructs society, provokes increase of internal tensity and hostility to the state which is the key instrument of realization of any national project.
Reacting on paradoxical in conditions of improvement of economic situation growth of trouble, the state tries to stabilize itself. However it is only the spokesman of cumulative public interests, even if compelled one. By virtue of its position its activity can be successful only to the degree to which it corresponds to these interests. Attempts of strengthening of authority while they are being carried out within the limits of liberal project which is not simply obsolete but even essentially hostile both to a society and to the state (as to the expresser of the interest of this society) will lead to the contrary opposite results.
To be successful the state should act in accordance with its nature that is in the interest of the society.Now it means the development of new, not liberal, modernized national project directed on satisfying of interests of all layers of a society, restrained by the liberal project - that is the means of everybody except for the Russian oligarchical and largest foreign business.
3. Content of modernizing project
Surroundings in which modern societies exist are more and more strict global competition.
The liberal project provides a survival of not the whole society, but only its separate fragments (basically raw) which do not meet competition in the world economy and consequently entered it automatically without significant efforts from the part. Surviving due to destruction of own society these fragments are forced to reinterpret themselves as not a part of it but as the developed part of the world - "world community", "human civilization", "West", etc.
Modernizing project should become an answer to the rest of the Russian society deprived of future by the liberal project and destined by it to degeneration and extinction.
The consecutive alternative to the liberal project can be only social democratic.It shouldnt be frightened of, though, probably, it is not necessary to propagandize it so that not to push away ahead of time a lot of useful and influential fellow travelers.
World outlook basis of this project- return to a complete consideration of Russia as uniform subject of a global competition as a corporation of special type (developing not only manufacture in the broad sense of the word, but also the human capital necessary for this type manufacture together with the social environment necessary for last). All the basic social layers and groups should be considered as equivalent; the idea of the general development due to suppression of some of them should be rejected as vicious, non productive, one that couldnt be realized and could destruct the society.
The main mood of the modernizing project, its hidden message to the society - «return to the common sense», healing of Russiaunder the slogan «from reform to rationality».
The substantive purpose of transformationof a society within the limits of modernizing project is the maintenance of its long-term competitiveness in conditions of toughening of a global competition.
For purely psychological reasons within the limits of the project the "supertarget" of this transformation which defines a new positive role of the Russian society for development of all mankind (as soon as Russian society is not capable to develop without "supertarget) should be certain and precisely fixed.
Its our luck that there is such target and its quite evident.
The matter is that the global monopolies which have lost strength after the crash of the USSRconstraining their avidity, have created the world game rules depriving two third of mankind of opportunities of development of any prospects. As a result of the USSRcrash the monopolism became global and rather quickly started to rot.
The way out of modern crisis of worldwide economics demands sharp decrease of its monopolization degree. It can be done only due to the change of technological basis: distributions of qualitatively new, highly effective technologies and creations on their basis of new, fairer world order.
There are such technologies in Russia- they are in many respects inherited from the Soviet military-industrial complex and now are blocked by the Russian and global monopolies - and modernization of Russiademands their commercialization and a wide circulation in our country.
Commercial work in this direction is already being conducted, in particular, Joint Stock Financial Corporation"System" - it was reported at the Londoneconomic forum, however it will be effective and become the tool of positioning of Russiain a global competition only under condition of support and direction by the state.
As a matter of fact defining what technologies, whom and on what conditions to transfer we can not simply predetermine the new world order, but also independently and at own discretion to form global economic and thus political - landscape.
It looks like this problem is, on the one hand, quite realistic and on the other - enough large-scale and fascinating for involving in the process of modernization of all Russian society.
Maintenance of long-term competitiveness is possible only due to restoration and escalating on qualitatively new technological base of all components of the national capital: human, technological, material (industrial and natural), financial.
4. Synthesis of values
Modernizing project cant be imposed to the society from the outside, it can only be a result and creative expression of the society itself.
In Russiait means that it should rely on the synthesis of social, liberal and patriotic values which has been already spontaneously carried out by our society.
These values imply each other.
Really: a fair liberal should see that the poor person cannot be free, that freedom means prosperity. It automatically makes him not only by the follower of social values but also a patriot because in a global competition not only prosperity and property which is a liberal value but also freedom should be protected on a national basis.
A fair supporter of social values understands that they should be protected. Protection against external competitors makes a patriot out of him, protection against bureaucracy and excessive avidity of business - a liberal. It is serious: for example, the Communist Party of the Russian Federationremains to be the most democratic political party by its internal organization.
At last, a fair patriot understands that neither slave nor beggar will protect fatherland - consequently citizens should be free and rich as much as it is possible. And it makes a patriot to be a supporter of liberal and social values.
So called elite getting fuddy in the beginning of the 90th doesnt let this synthesis articulate in definite demands political and media structures but its possibilities of opponency to the Russian society are close to the exhaust.
Till now there were two successful though partial attempts of synthesis on the level of elites.
The first - synthesis of social and patriotic values - has been executed by the absent Alexander Andreevich Prokhanov within the limits of the newspaper "Zavtra".
The second - synthesis of social and liberal values - is executed rather recently also by absent though because of other reasons - Michael Borisovich Khodorkovsky in its articles, in particular, "The Left Turn-2".
Despite of the limit of material caused by clear circumstances it was a unique attempt of if not creation but planimetric description of qualitatively new modernizing project of Russia.
Unfortunately political emotions and discussion of questions of authorship blocked substantial discussion about concrete goals and steps offered by Khodorkovsky and representing a sketch of qualitatively new social and economic program.
Therefore I shall be grateful, if present day spokesmen can find opportunities for substantial instead of political and emotional discussion of the program of Khodorkovsky, prospects of its completion and a concrete definition.
There was a shy hope that the spirit of this program would be apprehended and mastered by president Putin. You know as in the times when Bolsheviks deprived social-revolutionary of their slogans and realized them. If it really makes difference who has put forward correct ideas if they are been put into real life? - "its ok well settle up one day!.
The president announced national projects in September, two months prior to an issue of "The Left turn-2", but, taking into account peculiarities of the Russian communications, it was possible to assume that his analysts and speechwriters had an opportunity to familiarize with Khodorkovsky's ideas and to embody them in measures of a state policy earlier than he could issue them in the form of an article.
At least, national projects gave hope that the president has apprehended the idea of synthesis of social and liberal values and started to complete and neutralize liberal program of his ministries by the social component.
Even frankly advertising character of national projects did not dispel these hopes because, eventually, the first pancake has the full right to be lumpy.
However the subsequent actions and especially the message of the president to the Federal Assembly have shown that these hopes are groundless for the meanwhile.
It seems that the president acts as the politician but not as the statesman, as the leader and creator of the nation - he synthesizes not values but interests. Not liberal values but the liberal policy crushing these values. Not patriotic values but a policy of hurrah-patriotism providing suppression of heterodoxy, not defensibility, safety and the bases for national pride. Not social values but convulsive pre-election satisfaction of separate social interests for this we should sincerely thank him as a sop though humiliates and doesnt solve the problems but in any way is better than hunger. That who starved knows.
It is visible today - the state does not wish to modernize the country. It means that the society should solve this problem - or, at least, to prepare for its settlement - independently.
5. Motive force of modernization is medium regional business
To succeed a modernizing project should lean (at least at the first stage while it is mainly alternative to the liberal project) on a part of a society which, on the one hand, is deprived of prospects by the liberal project and, on the other hand - possesses the greatest and most various resources.
Today it is the business which has reached the lead positions on the regional markets ("medium business"). It possesses following features which combination makes it potential mover of a new stage in the development of the Russian society:
- possess of significant and various resources;
- impossibility of realization of these resources for the further development in view of objective household (dominating of large-scale business, impossibility of development without administrative disguise, which borders are similar to the borders of the region) and political (centralization in taking decisions and political life as a whole) restrictions;
- the scale of activity is not large enough for the use of all possibilities of liberal project (influence to the state, output to the international financial and goods markets) but doesnt already let to avoid significant loses from its realization (including external competition);
- subdivision that creates objective necessity in flexible coordination in national scale.
Medium business has already accumulated necessary resources for the break from a regional level on national one and further on international. This very break will liberate enormous saved up and ground-swell burnt energy and can become a source and the content not simply for acceleration of public progress, but complex modernization of all Russia. Medium business sharply requires political, intellectual and moreover ideological maintenance of this break that could become real, true project (at least on the first stage of its realization).
By virtue of oligarchical character of resistance to the medium business its break will inevitably bear features of antioligarchical (thus directed against not only commercial but also power oligarchy) revolution.
6. Treatment of liberal forces
Liberal forces (down to "commercial" oligarches) suffer from aggression of power oligarchy and consequently are allies of modernizing project.
At the same time in process of improvement of political system of Russiapresent liberal forces will divide into two groups.
The first will adhere to liberal values and, accordingly, to participate in modernization of Russiabeing gradually dissolved in created with its help modernized elite in the process of acceptance of synthesis of social, patriotic and liberal values.
The second group will adhere to liberal interests denying for the sake of them liberal values. It will serve to the Russian oligarchical and transnational business. The power oligarchy does not suit it not as oligarchy, as a part that makes harm to a society, but as the competitor to the commercial oligarchy as well as an element of the Russian state limiting freedom of business in any interests, even interests of all Russian society.
After carrying out of political modernization and transformation of power oligarchy into a diligent part of the state this group of liberals will keep the animosities not to the oligarches any longer but to a society - and will become the opponent of modernization.
It is a severe choice which waits for the Russian liberals and not all of them will stand it up - but we should help them in this uneasy situation and draw the maximum of them to the part of Russia.
We should do it also because the liberals, though badly they are treated, in the modern Russian society are the main supporters of managing efficiency and general civility.
7.Contours of modernizing projectare more or less visible. Its a restoration of the human and industrial capital of the country on qualitatively new technological basis.
Its a supporting of a living wage and transformation on this basis of all interbudgetary attitudes, consequently of the whole state system of the Russian Federation.
Its arestoration of the public health services, education and science as key points of supplying national competitiveness in the modern world.
Its a modernization of an infrastructure and, accordingly, the program of development and accommodations of productive forces - new plan of the State Committee on Electrification of Russia.
Its a political and administrative modernization of the state which represents the head and hands of a society and should carry out its official duties that is to do everything that is necessary for a society but it fails to do at a concrete stage of the development.
At last, its a shift of the capital to Novosibirsk - a disputable question but I as a muscovite can tell you that there is little life beyond the Urals, let the prices for the real estate grow there, here they already became intolerable for people.
The time has come for its concrete definition, study and finishing up to a reality not only in slogans but also in political and economic measures.
They will be demanded during the election campaign of 2007 and especially of 2008 but the main thing is in the course of system crisis which will create not onlydeadly threats but also conditions for modernization of our society.
Despite of the years 1991 and 1998 we should be ready simply not to avoid the damage of the country but to help it to the full strength to use windows of possibilities which will be opened before it.
8. The direct purpose of work- definition of policy necessary for Russiain the most significant for it spheres of a public life. Not pressing in forecasting of spontaneous succession of events as well as in criticism of current actions (as approaching system crisis they will be more and more popular) it is necessary to develop the normative approach, deeply worked out categorical imperative what type of state policy corresponds to the needs of Russia.
This approach should become objective and in theoretically commonly accepted "criterion of truth" in relation to a state policy - a kind of a tuning fork: approach it - is good, even if is carried out by political opponents, the distance - is bad, even if being the result of actions of political allies.
- formation of as broad as possible audience of experts, specialists and challenging youth providing display, verbalization and the profound multilateral study (including independent) of modernizing project;
- professional training for the future state apparatus having its supertarget modernization of Russia;
- wide circulation, introduction into a society and state of modernizing values and ideas, supply of ideological break and replacement of moods of despair and a hopelessness (including the means of formation modernizing moods among the teaching staff of Higher Institutions which influences the moods of the graduates thus dominating ideology of the future);
To achieve this purpose the Institute of Globalization Studies has opened on the basis of debating society Modernization of Russia: new vector which had been working for a year together with Informational Agency "Rosbalt" special project with the working name "Institute of Social and Economic Modernization" or, easier, "Institute of Modernization".
It is essentially nonparty and, though it develops political measures, essentially non political structure.
In the Instituteof Globalization Studieswe do not feed illusions concerning modern Russian parties and we know that political life of Russiaas soon as possible will break free out of Procrustean bed of the artificial party organization imposed by the state and fictitious in many respects.
We shall promote in every way the modernization of our Native land and we invite to the cooperation all the interested forces. Today is the first test. It is the extremely important for us to see as wide spectrum of the opinions connected with problematic of modernization as possible and to start cooperation with maximum possible quantity of various and original thinkers and political groups.